Wellness research



We have searched the world for ingredients which will make a difference to your wellbeing!

 Below you can find a summary of each ingredient and the scientific research explaining how it is going to help.

This scientific research is for informational use only. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Nu Mind provides this information as a service. This information should not be read to recommend or endorse any specific products.


Vitamin B complex


  • Energy and concentration booster
  • Mood regulation
  • Supports immune system
  • Aids normal metabolism of stress and energy


All eight of the B vitamins are essential minerals that can be found in a variety of food sources. However, if you aren’t eating a balanced diet you may be missing out on some of the amazing benefits. The B vitamins are involved in a variety of body processes from acting as building blocks for neurotransmitters to generating energy in cells. They even help in regulating our mood. Overall, they play a key role in maintaining good health and mental well-being due to their many positive effects.

For mild stress and anxiety

The overall importance of the B vitamins is well known within the wellness industry. More recently however, studies have highlighted the positive effect they can have upon mental health issues such as stress and anxiety.

Recent Scientific studies suggest a Vitamin B complex can have remarkable effects on our physiological and neurological health. They are very important for supporting a healthy nervous system.

A 2013 double-blind placebo study found supplementation of the B vitamins to have a positive impact upon symptoms of anxiety. The trial of 60 adults found significant improvements over the first 30 days when compared to a placebo, with benefits continuing to increase for a further 30 days.

Additionally, the eight essentials vitamins and their role in mental health have been studied within systematic reviews and meta-analyses including a 2019 review. This review covered 18 articles with 11 reporting an improvement in general mood. Similarly, a statistically significant benefit was noticed in reducing symptoms of stress in a 2016 study.

Many of the B vitamins play a role in regulating the stress response by synthesising hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. The all-round effect of the B vitamins is clear with recent research suggesting the essential vitamins are necessary for optimal physiological and neurological functioning.

The Effect of Methylated Vitamin B Complex on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Quality of Life in Adults with Depression. J.Lewis, E.Tiozzo, A.Melillo, S.Leonard, L.Chen, A.Mendez, J.Woolger, J.Konefal, 2013.


A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of B Vitamin Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms, Anxiety, and Stress: Effects on Healthy and ‘At-Risk’ Individuals. L.Young, A.Pipingas, D.White, S.Gauci, A.Scholey, 2019.


B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review. D,Kennedy, 2016.



EFSA Claims*

  • Contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism
  • Contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system
  • Contributes to normal psychological function
  • Contributes to the normal function of the heart
  • Contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress
  • Contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue
  • Contributes to normal mental performance
  • Contributes to normal synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters
  • Contributes to the regulation of hormonal activity
  • Contributes to the normal function of the immune system
  • Contributes to the normal function of the immune system
  • Contributes to normal protein and glycogen metabolism
  • Contributes to normal macronutrient metabolism


*European Food Safety Authority

Vitamin C


  • Powerful antioxidant
  • Supports immune system


Vitamin C found commonly in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons is a well-known powerful antioxidant. This water-soluble essential vitamin has many other roles linked to impressive health benefits. Vitamin Cs positive health benefits include supporting the immune system, lowering the risk of chronic diseases as well as its ability to fight free radicals. Fruit and vegetables are full to the brim with vitamin C, however if you do not receive enough, supplementation is something to consider.

For stress and mild anxiety

The above knowledge of the essential vitamin is widely known, however its relation to stress and anxiety is less so. Historically Vitamin C hasn’t necessarily been associated with a reduction in stress and mild anxiety, however new research has suggested it has much potential.

A double-blind placebo study examined the link between vitamin C and stress finding the essential vitamin to reduce anxiety levels on the Beck anxiety inventory (one of the primary scientific anxiety measurement methods) after just 14 days. The hypothesis is that it was due to its potent antioxidant properties which combat damage caused by oxidative stress. While the trial was of just 42 students, it illustrates the importance of supplementation of the essential vitamin

More recently, a review was carried out to study the role Vitamin C has in easing stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. The review suggested the essential vitamin has antidepressant effects as well as the potential to improve moods possibly as a result of the neuroprotective effect of the potent anti-oxidant. The clinical trials concluded that vitamin C demonstrates anxiolytic (reduces anxiety) effects with fast therapeutic responses as well as minimal chance of adverse effects.


Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. de Oliveira IJ, de Souza VV, Motta V, Da-Silva SL, 2015.


The role of vitamin C in stress-related disorders. B.Moritz, A.Schmitz, A.Rodrigues, A.Dafre,M.Cunha, 2020.



EFSA claims*

  • Vitamin C contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue
  • Vitamin C contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress
  • Vitamin C contributes to the normal function of the immune system
  • Vitamin C contributes to normal psychological function
  • Vitamin C contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system
  • Vitamin C contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism
  • Vitamin C contributes to maintain the normal function of the immune system during and after intense physical exercise
  • Vitamin C contributes to normal collagen formation for the normal function of blood vessels (and many other things)


*European Food Safety Authority

Vitamin D3


  • Mood regulation
  • Energy booster
  • Strengthens bones


Vitamin D, or the sunshine vitamin, is an essential nutrient for during those dark dingy months! There is a direct correlation between a lack of sunlight and psychological distress. This essential vitamin has many important functions from regulating absorption of minerals to maintaining a normal immune system.

For mild anxiety and stress

Vitamin D doesn’t necessarily aid the body’s reaction to stress however, an absence of the vitamin has been shown to drastically increase the likelihood of stress and anxiety.

A 2015 review examined the link between a by-product of Vitamin D, calcidiol and anxiety disorders concluding that those with lower levels of the Vitamin D by-product were drastically more likely to be affected by anxiety disorder.

More recently, a 2019 study examined the effect of Vitamin D on those with GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) finding the essential vitamin was effective in ameliorating the severity of GAD symptoms by increasing Serotonin while also decreasing the inflammatory biomarker, Neopterin.

Additionally, a couple studies have suggested that Vitamin D deficiencies increase anxiety as well as other mood states. Two studies examined the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on women with Vitamin D deficiencies and premenstrual syndrome with both studies finding the vitamin to be effective in easing anxiety as well as other premenstrual syndrome symptoms.


Vitamin D in anxiety and affective disorders. Bičíková M, Dušková M, Vítků J, Kalvachová B, Řípová D, Mohr P, Stárka L, 2015.


Vitamin D supplementation ameliorates severity of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Eid A, Khoja S, AlGhamdi S, Alsufiani H, Alzeben F, Alhejaili N, Tayeb HO, Tarazi FI,2019.


The Effect of Vitamin D Supplement Consumption on Premenstrual Syndrome in Vitamin D-Deficient Young Girls: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Abdollahi R, Abiri B, Sarbakhsh P, Kashanian M, Vafa M, 2019.


Vitamin D Supplementation for Premenstrual Syndrome-Related Mood Disorders in Adolescents with Severe Hypovitaminosis D. Tartagni M, Cicinelli MV, Tartagni MV, Alrasheed H, Matteo M, Baldini D, De Salvia M, Loverro G, Montagnani M, 2016.


EFSA Claims*

  • Vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of normal bone
  • Vitamin D contributes to the normal function of the immune system
  • Vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of normal muscle function
  • Vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of normal teeth


*European Food Safety Authority
















  • Mood regulation
  • Maintains healthy nervous system
  • Support immune system


Zinc, the mineral found particularly in red meat, eggs and dairy has a number of necessary health benefits. It is crucial for boosting the immune system, helping the body create new cells and processing food. As well as that, it fuels the vagus nerve which connects the brain to the body in which ‘calm’ messages are transported.

For mild anxiety and stress

Little research has been carried out on Zinc in relation to stress and anxiety, however within research there is a clear link between Zinc and mood disorders. One of the only studies on Zinc and anxiety does however find that there is a connection between Zinc plasma levels and anxiety and that Zinc supplementation was able to improve anxiety symptoms.

Another 2010 study shows the importance of reducing deficiencies of this key mineral via supplementation in order to ease the effects the deficiency had on mood disorders such as anxiety.


Decreased Zinc and Increased Copper in Individuals with Anxiety.A,Russo,2011.


Role of zinc in the development and treatment of mood disorders. E.Cope, C.Levenson, 2010.


For other mood states

Within other studies, a strong correlation has been identified on the effect of Zinc on supporting other mood states. In a 2010 double-blind placebo study on healthy young women, Zinc was found to lead to an improvement in mood while also improving overall scores on the Profile of Moods state rating scale. Similarly, a 12-week trial on obese persons with depressive symptoms with a supplementation of Zinc was able to improve symptoms more than placebo.


Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study. T.Sawada, K.Yokoi, 2010.


Zinc monotherapy increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and decreases depressive symptoms in overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Solati Z, Jazayeri S, Tehrani-Doost M, Mahmoodianfard S, Gohari MR, 2015.


EFSA Claims*

  • Zinc contributes to normal carbohydrate metabolism
  • Zinc contributes to normal cognitive function
  • Zinc contributes to normal macronutrient metabolism
  • Zinc contributes to normal metabolism of fatty acids
  • Zinc contributes to normal metabolism of vitamin A
  • Zinc contributes to the normal function of the immune system
  • Zinc contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress
  • Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal testosterone levels in the blood
  • Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal hair
  • Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal skin
  • Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal vision


*European Food Safety Authority



  • Improves cognitive function
  • Important for plant-based diets
  • Boosts energy


Iron is an essential vitamin found in red meats and beans. It is used to create haemoglobin, a protein found in the blood which transports oxygen around the body, maintaining energy levels. Approximately 30% of people are deficient in this key mineral.

For mild anxiety and stress

Whilst iron doesn’t necessarily aid the bodily reaction to stress it is an essential vitamin and is necessary to prevent deficiency induced anxiety.

A 2020 study showed that psychiatric disorders such as anxiety were much more common in those with an iron deficiency and when given an iron supplement, disorders decreased rapidly. It is believed to be as a result of the minerals role in creating haemoglobin which is necessary to carry oxygen throughout the body


Psychiatric disorders risk in patients with iron deficiency anemia and association with iron supplementation medications: a nationwide database analysis. H.Lee, H.Chao, W.Huang,S.Chen, H.Yang,2020.


For energy boost 

A trial on women with unexplained fatigue who were non-anaemic (did not have an iron deficiency) aimed to examine the relationship between iron and fatigue. The study concluded that the level of fatigue decreased in the group taking iron more significantly than in the placebo suggesting iron can increase energy even in those without a deficiency.

More recently a study was carried out on distance runners testing the effect of iron on mood, fatigue and performance. The double-blind placebo study concluded those in the iron group had a slight improvement in mood likely as a result of the statistically significant improvement in total fatigue score when compared to the placebo group. Once again, energy levels and subsequently mood levels are shown to be raised by iron supplementation.


Iron supplementation for unexplained fatigue in non-anaemic women: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial.Verdon F, Burnand B, Stubi CL, Bonard C, Graff M, Michaud A, Bischoff T, de Vevey M, Studer JP, Herzig L, Chapuis C, Tissot J, Pécoud A, Favrat B, 2003.


Four weeks of IV iron supplementation reduces perceived fatigue and mood disturbance in distance runners. Woods A, Garvican-Lewis LA, Saunders PU, Lovell G, Hughes D, Fazakerley R, Anderson B, Gore CJ, Thompson KG,2014.


EFSA Claims*

  • Iron contributes to normal cognitive function
  • Iron contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism
  • Iron contributes to normal formation of red blood cells and haemoglobin
  • Iron contributes to normal oxygen transport in the body
  • Iron contributes to the normal function of the immune system
  • Iron contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue
  • Iron has a role in the process of cell division


*European Food Safety Authority



  • Maintenance of metabolism
  • Aid cognitive function
  • Mood regulation
  • Important for plant-based diets

For mild anxiety and stress

Iodine itself has undergone very little research examining the minerals relationship with stress and anxiety. However, a recent 2020 study of Iodine and Selenium showed reduction of anxiety scores on the BAI (Becks Anxiety Inventory) were significantly improved versus those with low iodine concentrations.


The Relationship between Iodine and Selenium Levels with Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Euthyroid Nodular Goite. E.Turan, O.Karaaslan, 2020.


EFSA Claim*

  • Iodine contributes to normal cognitive function
  • Iodine contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism
  • Iodine contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system
  • Iodine contributes to the maintenance of normal skin
  • Iodine contributes to the normal production of thyroid hormones and normal thyroid function

*European Food Safety Authority



  • Improves cognitive function
  • Aids sleep quality
  • Boosts energy


One of the most abundant minerals in the human body, Magnesium plays a key role in maintaining a healthy mind. The essential vitamin is involved in over 300 reactions in the human body from helping convert food into energy to regulating neurotransmitters. The latter function of magnesium has undergone scientific study recently with preliminary research concluding that the vitamin does reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety. It is believed to affect the hypothalamus which regulates hormones such as adrenaline, the hormone released during the fight or flight response, which is all too familiar during those stressful days!

For Mild anxiety and stress

A systematic review from 2017 examined 18 studies on the correlation between Magnesium and stress with all participants vulnerable to anxiety e.g. mildly anxious. The majority of the studies concluded that Magnesium has beneficial effects upon subjective anxiety. This is believed to be as a result of the improvement of brain function that Magnesium offers.


The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic Review. N.Boyle, C.Lawton, L.Dye, 2017.


For Sleep 

Magnesium has grown in popularity recently for its ability to aid sleep onset latency (the time it takes to get to sleep) as well as quality. A double-blind placebo over 8 weeks found 500mg of magnesium to have a statistically significant increase in sleep time, sleep quality and sleep onset latency when compared to those in the placebo group. Though this study was carried out on the elderly, other studies have suggested the mineral aids relaxation which promotes sleep due to its role in regulating neurotransmitters as well as the regulation of melatonin, the sleep hormone. Moreover, the mineral has been proven when in a deficiency to increase the likelihood of several medical conditions including insomnia.


The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Abbasi B, Kimiagar M, Sadeghniiat K, Shirazi MM, Hedayati M, Rashidkhani B, 2012.


Biorhythms and possible central regulation of magnesium status, phototherapy, darkness therapy and chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion. Durlach J, Pagès N, Bac P, Bara M, Guiet-Bara A,2002


The magic of magnesium. D.Boomsma, 2008.



EFSA Claims*

  • Magnesium has a role in the process of cell division
  • Magnesium contributes to the maintenance of normal teeth
  • Magnesium contributes to the maintenance of normal bones
  • Magnesium contributes to normal psychological function
  • Magnesium contributes to normal protein synthesis
  • Magnesium contributes to normal muscle function
  • Magnesium contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system
  • Magnesium contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism
  • Magnesium contributes to electrolyte balance
  • Magnesium contributes to a reduction of tiredness and fatigue


*European Food Safety Authority

Ksm-66 Ashwagandha


  • Promote cognitive function
  • Mood regulator
  • Energy booster
  • Supports immune and endocrine system
  • Anxiolytic (reduces anxiety)


Ashwagandha, known as the ‘King of Ayurvedic’ herbs, has been used in traditional Indian herbal remedies for over 4000 years and it is easy to see why it has earned its crown as a stress relieving herb. Within Ayurvedic medicinal practices it has been categorised in the ‘Medharasayan’ group of food and nutrients which promote learning and memory retrieval. The ancient herb is also referred to as the “Indian Ginseng’. As an adaptogenic herb, it has multiple benefits such as the ability to nourish and restore optimal nervous and immune system responses. Thanks to its’ selection of amino acids, called withanolids and alkaloids, it supports all your physical and mental needs such as boosting mood, increased energy levels and overall immune function. It’s use in western medicine is on the increase with larger studies needed to prove its clinical effects. With this being said, the benefits for stressed individuals are clear and compelling.


For Mild stress and anxiety

In 2012, a 60-day study was run evaluating the effect of Ashwagandha on reducing stress and anxiety in adults. The randomized double-blind placebo study found that cortisol levels (the main stress hormone) decreased significantly (27.9% on average) as well as perceived stress (44%) when compared to the placebo group. The study concluded that high-concentration full-spectrum KSM-66 Ashwagandha ‘safely and effectively improves an individual’s resistance towards stress and thereby improves self-assessed quality of life’.

Research studies and reviews have since re-iterated the efficacy of Ashwagandha in relieving the physiological symptoms of stress, most notably with a systematic review from 2014. While the studies exhibited some levels of bias, the systematic review examined 62 abstracts using 5 human trials that met the criteria, ultimately supporting research that Ashwagandha is effective and safe in aiding the body’s reaction to stress.

Another recent study from 2019 furthered the research, concluding that Ashwagandha had statistically significant data suggesting those in the placebo group had lower cortisol levels, the primary stress hormone.


A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, & Anishetty, S, Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 2012.


An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Pratte M, Nanatavi K, Young V, Morley C, 2014.


Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, Langade D, 2019.



Cognitive function

In a randomized, double-blind placebo with 20 healthy adults, there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants answers as well as the speed of response, across five different cognitive tests. Similarly, an 8 week 2017 study demonstrated significant improvements in both general and immediate memory as well as information-processing speed, sustained attention as well as executive function.


Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants. Pingali U, Pilli R, Fatima N, 2014.


Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Bose, S. (2017).




In a 2019 study examining the effects of Ashwagandha on anxiety in 60 individuals, it was concluded that the adaptogenic herb led to significant improvement in sleep quality. Another 2019 study evaluated the effects of Ashwagandha on sleep concluding the herb not only increased sleep onset latency (speed of getting to sleep) but also the overall quality of the sleep. Similarly, an 8 week study from 2020 on both healthy adults and those with insomnia found that in both groups sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency improved significantly when compared to the placebo group.


Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, Langade D, 2019.


Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double – blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled study. Langade, D., Kanchi, S., Salve, J., Debnath, K., & Ambegaokar, D, 2019.


Clinical evaluation of the pharmacological impact of ashwagandha root extract on sleep in healthy volunteers and insomnia patients: A double-blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo-controlled study. Langade, D., Thakare, V., Kanchi, S., & Kelgane, S, 2020.











Rhodiola Rosea


  • Energy booster
  • Anxiolytic effect (reduces anxiety)
  • Aids cognitive function
  • Mood regulation


Rhodiola Rhosea, originates from the mountains of Siberia and is also known as the Golden Root or the Arctic Root. It is a plant with an impressive history in traditional medicine.

Research has shown this adaptogenic herb to have remarkable mental and physiological benefits including boosting energy, enhancing cognition and ultimately aiding the body’s resistance to stress. With over 140 active ingredients, Rosavin and Salidroside being its primary potent components, it is truly an all-in-one stress supplement.


For mild anxiety and stress

In a 2015 study of 80 “mildly anxious participants” it was found that those taking Rhodiola Rosea experienced a “significant reduction in self-reported anxiety, stress, anger, confusion and depression at 14 days and a significant improvement in total mood’. Though this trial wasn’t a randomized double placebo trial, multiple other studies have concluded the same results.

A similar study involving 101 subjects found benefits after as soon as 3 days in terms of the improvements to life-stress symptoms.

More recent studies have tested subjects with ‘burnout’ symptoms as it is believed Rhodiola Rosea increases the physiological resistance to stress as a result of the plants adaptogenic nature. The 2017 study showed improvements within just one week with benefits noticed across multiple measures ultimately proving its use in the increased physiological resistance to stress.



The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms. M. Cropley, A. Banks and J.Boyle 2015


Therapeutic Effects and Safety of Rhodiola rosea Extract WS® 1375 in Subjects with Life‐stress Symptoms – Results of an Open‐label Study. D. Edwards, A. Heufelder, A. Zimmerman, 2012.


Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms S. Kasper, A. Dienel. 2017



Cognitive function

This trial involving 121 military cadets aimed to test the capacity for mental work for those who were tired and on night shifts. The study found benefits as quickly as after 2 hours with reduced fatigue as well as an increased capacity for work when compared to the placebo group.

Another double placebo trial aimed to test the effect of Rhodiola Rosea on 20 students during a stressful exam period. The trial concluded that there was a significant improvement in mental fitness such as the accuracy of a maze drawing test while also improving fatigue and general wellbeing in comparison to the placebo group.

Additionally, trials have been done on similarly stressful situations such as night duty physicians. The study aimed to test cognitive function in tired stressed subjects, with the results indicating a statistically significant improvement in 5 different mental tests, once again proving cognitive improvement in stressful situations.



A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work Shevtsov V, Zholus B, Shervarly V, Vol'skij V, Korovin Y, Khristich M, Roslyakova N, Wikman G, 2003.


A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Spasov A, Wikman G, Mandrikov V, Mironova I, Neumoin V, 2000.


Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H, 2000.




A systematic review of 11 studies examined the effects of Rhodiola Rosea and found the herb to be statistically significant in it’s function of increasing of the time until exhausted in physical activity, as well as increased mental performance when under stress.

This ability of Rhodiola Rosea to combat exhaustion has been re-iterated in other studies such as a 2014 trial in which participants with stress-induced fatigue saw a substantial reduction in fatigue when compared to the placebo.



The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Hung SK, Perry R, Ernst E, 2011.


Rhodiola rosea (SHR-5), Part I: a proprietary root extract of Rhodiola rosea is found to be effective in the treatment of stress-related fatigue. S, Perry, 2014.



Bacopa Monnieri


  • Energy and concentration booster
  • Anxiolytic effect (reduces anxiety)
  • Aid cognitive function


Yet another staple plant within Ayurvedic medicine, Bacopa Monnieiri is a versatile herb used for a variety of health purposes. Following its popularity within western health practices, research studies show it may boost brain function alongside alleviating stress to name a few benefits. The active ingredients responsible for such positive mental function, known as Bacosides A and B, repair and improve nerve impulse transmission. In simple terms, they promote healthy mental functions such as focus, memory and learning.


For stress and mild anxiety

In a double-blind placebo trial 72 healthy adults were tested over a 12-week period. The study concluding that there was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety when compared to the placebo group.

The following year, a trial concluded similar results suggesting Bacopa Monnieiri was able to reduce the physiological effects of stress shown by the decrease in cortisol levels alongside the increase in positive mood. These adaptogenic properties, have been consistently shown in studies and are due to the herbs potent saponins, bacosides A and B.

The anxiolytic effects of the herb are still somewhat underexplored however studies have shown there is a correlation between Bacopa Monnieiri and a reduction in the physiological effects of stress.



Brahmi for the better? New findings challenging cognition and anti-anxiety effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in healthy adults. V. Sathyanarayanan ,T. Thomas , S. Einöther,R. Dobriyal , M. Joshi,S. Krishnamachari. 2013


An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood. Benson S, Downey LA, Stough C, Wetherell M, Zangara A, Scholey A. 2014.


Lemon Balm


  • Mood regulator
  • Improves cognitive function
  • Soothes physiological stress


Lemon Balm also called Melissa Officinalis, has traditionally been used to boost mood and cognitive function for over two millennium. Recent research goes on to suggest that Lemon Balm soothes physical symptoms of stress, helps the mind relax as well as enhancing overall brain function. The chemical compounds in Lemon Balm can help calm muscle tension and heightened senses resulting in a healthy fight-or-flight response making it a go to herbal ally.


For mild anxiety and stress

In a double-blind placebo study the self-rating of ‘calmness’ significantly increased in response to a DISS (Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation). Since the 2004 study multiple other studies have taken place examining the effect of Lemon Balm on stress. A 2011 study on individuals with mild to moderate anxiety found an 18% reduction in the manifestation of anxiety and improved anxiety-related symptoms by 15%.


Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm). D.Kennedy, W.Little, A.Scholey, 2004.



Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbancesJ.Cases, A.Ibarra, N.Feuillère, M.Roller, S.Sukkar, 2011.



Cognitive function


Studies on Lemon Balm have assessed the effect of the herb on cognitive performance. A 2002 study found statistically significant increases in sustained attention as well as memory. More recently a study examined the effect of Lemon Balm on mood as well as cognitive performance concluding a notable increase in memory performance while also increasing calmness.



Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).D.Kennedy, A.Scholey. N.Tildesley, E.Perry, K.Wesnes, 2002.


Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.D.Kennedy, A.Scholey. N.Tildesley, E.Perry, K.Wesnes, G.Wake, S.Savelev, 2003.




Whilst sleep and fatigue haven’t been the primary focus of studies, it has been concluded that lemon balm has positive effects on sleep and fatigue. One study found that insomnia was reduced by 42%. This significant reduction may be primarily due to a reduction in stress as the two symptoms clearly overlap.


Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.J.Cases, A.Ibarra, N.Feuillère, M.Roller, S.Sukkar, 2011.


Black Pepper


  • Increases bioavailability
  • Aids digestion


Piperine the most active compound found within black pepper can modify supplement metabolism. The molecule is able to inhibit enzymes that would break down supplements and so higher levels of certain supplements are left within the body allowing for higher bioavailability and ultimately more beneficial supplement uptake. Piperine is also known to enhance digestive capacity and reduce gastrointestinal food transit time.


Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects. Srinivasan K,2007.


The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs.H.Han,2011.





  • Anxiolytic effect (reduces anxiety)
  • Energy booster


This remarkable amino acid found in green tea leaves is best summed up as a relaxing agent without the unwanted sedative effects. Studies show L-theanine promotes a ‘relaxed but alert mental state via a direct influence on the central nervous system’. The adaptogen works to prompt this physiological effect with two prongs; by inhibiting Glutamine, the brain’s most important excitatory neurotransmitter as well as stimulating the production of GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric acid) a calming neurotransmitter. It is one of the most effective supplements for not only promoting a calming feeling but also keeping you active and ready to tackle the day.


For mild stress and anxiety

Studies on L-Theanine show it to have significant effects on the body in aiding the body’s reaction to stress.

In a 2009 double-blind placebo trial L-Theanine was able to reduce heart rate and the production of saliva in response to a stressful task. It is believed to be due to its ability to block L-glutamic acid to glutamate receptors in the brain. Additional trials have found longer term benefits with a 4-week 2019 study suggesting L-Theanine is beneficial for stress-related ailments. Moreover an 8-week trial on those with more severe depression symptoms saw a statistically significant decrease in anxiety-trait scores re-iterating the positive effect the amino acid has on anxiety and stress.



L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H, 2009.


Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Hidese S, Ogawa S, Ota M, Ishida I, Yasukawa Z, Ozeki M, Kunugi H, 2019.


Effects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label study. Hidese S, Ota M, Wakabayashi C, Noda T, Ozawa H, Okubo T, Kunugi H, 2017.





  • Aids sleep
  • Anxiolytic effect (reduces anxiety)


Lavender has an extensive history in wellness dating back as early as Ancient Rome. Contemporary research states Lavender has significant health benefits being used to treat anxiety and insomnia through providing a calming effect to the body. A terpene called Linalool is the most active component which is thought to be responsible for its potent smell as well as all the physiological health benefits.


For mild anxiety and stress

Lavender is well known for its anti-anxiety effects with a recent meta-analysis of 5 studies involving 645 participants concluding that the flower is highly effective in easing the physiological effects of anxiety. The anxiolytic effects of lavender when taken as Silexan oil capsules had a statistically significant impact which was comparable to anxiety medication such as Lorazepam.

A similar meta-analysis on 697 patients found comparable results on those with mild anxiety with HAMA (Hamilton Anxiety rating scale) scores increasing positively, thus re-iterating the anxiolytic effects of the flower.



Efficacy and safety of lavender essential oil (Silexan) capsules among patients suffering from anxiety disorders: A network meta-analysis. S.Yap , A.Dolzhenko A, Z.Jalal,M. Hadi M,T. Khan, 2019.


Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety: meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Möller, HJ., Volz, HP., Dienel, A,2019.





  • Mood regulator
  • Anxiolytic effects


The Passionflower herb is native to the southern United States. The adaptogen works in a two-pronged approach. It inhibits Glutamine while producing GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric acid), a calming neurotransmitter, which ultimately promotes a relaxed but alert mental state.


For mild anxiety and stress

Studies of Passionflower or Passiflora Incarnata has shown its anxiolytic effect as it is effective in easing the physiological symptoms of stress. The flower has been shown to have rapid effects within 30 minutes.

One trial tested Passionflower before patients underwent a major spinal surgery in order to reduce the patients anxiety surrounding the operation. It showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety scores on the STAI (State Anxiety Inventory). Likewise, a 2017 study was similarly done on those undergoing dental surgery finding that the natural flower had the same effect as Midazolam, a common anxiety medication, but without the amnesia or unwanted sedation.

Studies have also proven the long-term anxiolytic effects of the flower with a 4-week double-blind placebo trial suggesting Passionflower is as effective as Oxazepam, another anxiety medication, and again without any unwanted impairment.



Passiflora incarnata Linneaus as an anxiolytic before spinal anesthesia. Aslanargun P, Cuvas O, Dikmen B, Aslan E, Yuksel MU, 2012.



Effects of passiflora incarnata and midazolam for control of anxiety in patients undergoing dental extraction. L.Dantas ,A. de Oliveira-Ribeiro ,L. de Almeida-Souza,F. Groppo, 2017.


Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double‐blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam.S.Akhondzadeh,H. Naghavi,,M. Vazirian,A. Shayeganpour,H. Rashidi,M.Khani, 2001.




  • Anxiolytic effect
  • Aids sleep


This flower from the daisy family is a popular dietary supplement which has been used for thousands of years. While most seen as chamomile tea, it has many wellness properties in capsule form such as aiding sleep and supporting physiological symptoms of stress.

For mild stress and anxiety

In a double-blind placebo trial the effects of chamomile were examined upon those with GAD (generalized anxiety disorder). Over the 8 week study a statistically significant decrease in anxiety scores was found in those in the Chamomile group in comparison with the placebo group.

Similar studies on the correlation have since been done on this link between Chamomile and GAD with one study, of 179 participants, showing significant improvements over time. The study concluding that there was a clinically meaningful decrease in anxiety scores, as a result of chamomile supplementation.



A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Amsterdam JD, Li Y, Soeller I, Rockwell K, Mao JJ, Shults J, 2009.


Short-term open-label chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder. Keefe JR, Mao JJ, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD, 2016.



Probiotic Blend



  • Mood regulator
  • Supports gut health
  • Aids digestion
  • Immune system booster


The discovery that there is a connection between the gut and the brain, known as the Gut-brain Axis, is a relatively new scientific `innovation. More attention has been given to it recently with the research concluding that our gut is fundamentally connected to our emotions. In short, having a healthy gut is important for many reasons such as supporting positive mental health and well-being.

Our curated blend of 20 billion CFUs (or Colony forming units) consisting of 15 different probiotic strains, is designed to support the health of your gut microbiome and will support you on your journey to wellbeing.


For mild stress and anxiety 

The study of the benefits of probiotics and their role in affecting mood is rather new. With this being said, recent research highlighting the wide array of advantages probiotics offer, is now well established. The gut is often referred to as the second brain because of the enteric nervous system (ENS) being present. 90% of our bodies serotonin is made inside the ENS, therefore having an important role in affecting our mood.

A 2016 systematic review of 10 studies on the impact of probiotic supplementation on anxiety and depression symptoms concluded that psychological benefits occurred from supplementation of the Psychobiotics. More conclusively however, a 2020 review of articles within the last 15 years demonstrates a significant improvement in one or more of the anxiety measurements when compared to a placebo group in all studies. A more recent article suggests those with anxiety disorders such as Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) show a specific profile of gut microbiota, with this imbalance partially restored with the supplementation of probiotics.

Whilst more research is needed, the link between your gut and your mood is apparent with probiotics able to support gut microbiome health.



Probiotic supplementation can positively affect anxiety and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. M. Pirbaglou, J. Katz, R. de Souza, J. Stearns, M. Motamed, P Ritvo, 2016.


Food & mood: a review of supplementary prebiotic and probiotic interventions in the treatment of anxiety and depression in adults. S. Noonan, M. Zaveri, E. Macaninch, 2020.


Effects of Microbiota Imbalance in Anxiety and Eating Disorders: Probiotics as Novel Therapeutic Approaches. E. Navarro-Tapia ,L. Almeida-Toledano, G. Sebastiani , M. Serra-Delgado, Ó. García-Algar , V. Andreu-Fernández V, 2021.







  • May help reduce depression
  • improvements in vasomotor symptoms & somatic symptoms


A spice known for its vibrant colour and unique flavour, offers more than just enhancing dishes. Research suggests that saffron has medicinal benefits, especially for menopausal women. It has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may help with infections, pain, inflammation, fatigue, sleep issues, memory problems, and mood disorders like anxiety and depression. Studies show that saffron supplements can improve mood and reduce symptoms of mild to moderate depression. It may also help manage hot flushes, the sudden heat and sweating episodes experienced during menopause.


More of the science...

Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a highly prized spice derived from the stigmas of the Crocus sativus flower. Its vibrant colour, distinct flavour, and aroma have made it a popular ingredient in culinary traditions worldwide. However, saffron is not just a culinary delight; in recent years, scientific research has shed light on saffron's medicinal and therapeutic health benefits, particularly in menopause.

Saffron possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties (Srivastava et al., 2010). It may support various health problems, including infections, pain, inflammation, chronic fatigue, insomnia, memory impairment, mood, and personality disorders (anxiety, depression), and other mental illnesses. The therapeutic activity of C. sativus extracts in alleviating inflammation and central nervous system disorders, including depression, has been confirmed in the most recent basic animal (rodent) studies and human clinical trials (Matraszek-Gawron, 2023).

In the specific context of menopause, saffron has shown promise in addressing several symptoms commonly associated with this life stage. One of the most significant challenges faced by menopausal women is the management of mood disturbances, including anxiety and depression. Clinical studies have indicated that saffron supplementation can lead to notable improvements in mood and psychological symptoms. For instance, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted on overweight women with mild to moderate depression demonstrated that saffron supplementation at a dosage of 30mg per day led to a significant reduction in anxiety by 33% and depression by 32% over 12 weeks (Hausenblas et al., 2013). These findings suggest that saffron, as a safe over-the-counter supplement, may offer relief for individuals experiencing mild to moderate depression, particularly those who are overweight.

Moreover, saffron has shown potential in managing hot flushes, a common symptom experienced by menopausal women. Hot flushes, characterised by sudden intense heat and sweating, can be debilitating, and negatively impact quality of life. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on post-menopausal women with hot flushes revealed that saffron supplementation reduced both hot flushes and depressive symptoms over six weeks (Mazidi et al., 2016). Although the effects on other menopausal symptoms and overall quality of life were not substantial, the results highlight the potential of saffron as an adjunctive therapy for managing hot flushes. Despite the promising findings, it is essential to acknowledge that further research is needed to establish the full benefits of saffron in managing menopausal symptoms.


Find all the relevant papers here.




  • Thyroid function improvements
  • Diabetes support
  • Metabolic syndrome improvements


A saccharide compound, is crucial in cellular organisation, insulin regulation, and brain function. Research suggests that inositol supplementation may positively affect metabolic syndrome, including blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. Inositol also shows promise in supporting individuals with diabetes by mimicking insulin and improving glucose control. Additionally, inositol may impact hormone regulation, including thyroid function.


More of the science...

Inositol, a saccharide compound, is pivotal in cellular organisation, impacting the intricate interplay of insulin, hormonal regulation, and neurotransmitter functionality within the brain. While commonly misconstrued as vitamin B8, it is essential to note that inositol does not fall under the classification of vitamins but serves as a sugar variant, manifesting many critical functions. Specifically, inositol assumes a significant structural function within the cellular landscape, serving as a fundamental constituent of cell membranes. Furthermore, it exerts a discernible influence on the biological activity of insulin.

Research indicates that inositol supplementation may positively affect metabolic syndrome, a combination of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Studies have shown that inositol can improve blood pressure, lipid profile (cholesterol/triglycerides), and insulin resistance (Santamaria et al., 2011).

Inositol has also attracted significant interest in supporting individuals with diabetes. It possesses insulin-mimetic activity, meaning it can mimic the actions of insulin in the body. Abnormalities in inositol metabolism are associated with insulin resistance, and supplementation with inositol has been found to reduce blood glucose levels and enhance insulin sensitivity (Ozturan et al., 2017; Croze et al., 2013).

Inositol is a precursor to phosphatidyl Myo-inositol, which regulates various hormones such as insulin, thyrotropin, and follicle-stimulating hormone (Antonowski et al., 2019). It enhances insulin sensitivity in tissues, facilitates glucose uptake, and promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen for cellular storage (Antonowski et al., 2019; Croze et al., 2013). These mechanisms contribute to the potential metabolic and hormonal benefits of inositol supplementation.

Furthermore, inositol supplementation may have a positive impact on thyroid function. A study conducted on women in the menopausal transition demonstrated that supplementation led to decreased levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (Giordana et al., 2016). Nonetheless, additional investigation is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and assess the potential benefits of inositol in individuals with thyroid disorders.

Inositol has gained significant attention for its potential benefits in menopause. However, please note that most studies have employed higher doses of inositol, necessitating further research to determine optimal dosages and evaluate long-term safety.


Find all the relevant papers here.




  • Blood sugar regulation / improves glucose tolerance
  • Increased insulin sensitivities
  • Decrease total cholesterol & triglycerides
  • Increases basal metabolism,


A vital mineral found in foods like liver, wheat, yeast, potatoes, and apples. During menopause, maintaining adequate chromium levels is crucial as they tend to decrease with age. Chromium supports insulin function, stabilising blood sugar levels affected by hormonal changes. It also aids lipid metabolism, potentially improving cholesterol levels for heart health. Chromium supplements may assist in weight management by boosting metabolism and combating fatigue. Research generally shows positive effects on blood sugar control, inflammation, and oxidative stress.


More of the science...


Chromium, an essential trace mineral, is found in small amounts in foods such as liver, wheat, rye, yeast, potatoes, apples, and asparagus. As women age, the total body content of chromium tends to decrease, highlighting the increased importance of maintaining adequate chromium levels for optimal health, particularly during menopause (Ray, 2022).


Chromium promotes insulin function, and deficiency can lead to impaired glucose tolerance. By enhancing glucose utilisation by the body's cells, chromium helps maintain stable blood sugar levels, which is particularly relevant during menopause when hormonal changes can affect insulin sensitivities (Ray, 2022).


Chromium also plays a significant role in lipid metabolism, potentially affecting cholesterol levels. Studies have shown that chromium supplementation can decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, benefiting cardiovascular health. By participating in lipoprotein metabolism and aiding in the transport of amino acids into heart and liver cells, chromium promotes a healthy lipid profile, helping to prevent atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases (Ray, 2022; San-Mauro-Martin, 2015).


Chromium has been associated with other advantages for menopausal women. It may increase basal metabolism, potentially assisting in weight management, which can be challenging during this stage of life. Furthermore, chromium's involvement in energy production, particularly in the synthesis of ATP, can help combat fatigue, a common menopause symptom. (Ray, 2022; Bonetti, 2022).


Research suggests that chromium supplementation can positively impact various metabolic parameters. Studies have demonstrated favourable effects on glycaemic control, suggesting its potential benefits for individuals with insulin resistance and diabetes. Additionally, chromium supplementation has been associated with improved weight, body mass index (BMI), and markers of glycaemic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress in individuals with diabetes and coronary heart disease (Farrokhian, 2019).


Find all the relevant papers here.




  • Promotes Bone health
  • Supports Immune function


A naturally occurring metal element in various foods, plays a crucial role in physiological processes such as body growth, immune function, and metabolism. It influences glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin production and helps regulate mitochondrial oxidative stress. Manganese deficiency can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, increased risk of metabolic syndrome, and heightened oxidative stress. In terms of menopausal health, manganese supplementation has shown promise in reducing bone loss in clinical trials. It may also have a role in managing diabetes, with higher dietary manganese intake associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. However, maintaining an optimal balance is essential, as manganese toxicity can negatively impact bone health.


More of the science...

Manganese, found in nuts, grains, fruits, and green vegetables, is a naturally occurring metal element. It plays a role in various physiological and biological processes, including body growth, enzymatic regulation reactions, immune function, metabolism, and bone growth (Wang, 2022). While food serves as the primary source of manganese for the general population, its poor solubility limits its absorption (Rondanell, 2021).

Manganese influences several physiological functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin production and secretion, and mitochondrial oxidative stress regulation (Gong, 2020). Impaired glucose tolerance and increased risk of metabolic syndrome can arise from manganese deficiency, which leads to compromised glucose and lipid metabolism (Gong, 2020). Furthermore, manganese deficiency contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress by elevating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (Gong, 2020).

In terms of menopausal health, manganese offers potential benefits for bone health. Clinical trials evaluating the effects of oral manganese supplementation over two years in menopausal women have shown significantly reduced bone loss compared to the placebo group (Rondanell, 2021). However, it is important to note that manganese toxicity poses a greater risk for osteoporosis than manganese deficiency, highlighting the delicate balance required for optimal bone health. While the association between manganese and bone loss remains debatable, studies have indicated that individuals with osteoporosis may have lower serum manganese levels (Wang, 2022).

Manganese also shows potential in managing diabetes among menopausal women. Higher dietary manganese intake has been associated with a 30% lower risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women, attributed to lower circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers (Gong, 2020). These findings suggest that manganese supplementation may play a role in reducing the risk of diabetes and related complications in this population.


Find all the relevant papers here.

Lutien & Zeaxanthin



  • Antioxidant
  • Congitive function


Are potent antioxidants that protect cells from free radical damage. They specifically benefit eye health by absorbing blue light, reducing light scatter, and protecting against inflammation and ocular diseases like Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). These carotenoids also offer skin protection against light-induced damage. Furthermore, lutein and zeaxanthin may play a role in cognitive function, with higher concentrations in the brain associated with better memory and cognitive performance. They can potentially support mood disorders and depression thanks to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.


More of the science...

Extensive research has demonstrated lutein and zeaxanthin's antioxidant properties, which protect cells from potential damage caused by free radicals (Rasmas, 2023). Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids known to cross the blood-retina barrier and form macular pigment in the eye, with preferential accumulation in the human brain (Johnson, 2012).

The benefits of lutein and zeaxanthin include promoting eye health. They absorb blue light, thus safeguarding the retina from light-related damage and reducing light scatter (Mares, 2016). Their potent antioxidant properties indirectly reduce oxidative damage by absorbing light (Mares, 2016). Lutein also protects against inflammation, which can lead to various ocular diseases (Mares, 2016). Strong evidence suggests that lutein and zeaxanthin protect against the development of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in individuals over 40 (Mares, 2016).

Human studies have shown that lutein and zeaxanthin are present in the skin. Animal studies have demonstrated their efficacy in protecting against light-induced skin damage, particularly from ultraviolet wavelengths (Roberts, 2009).

Additionally, lutein and zeaxanthin may have a role in maintaining cognitive function, particularly in older adults. Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet rich in lutein and zeaxanthin may benefit cognitive health (Johnson, 2012). Higher concentrations of zeaxanthin in brain tissue have been significantly associated with better cognitive function, memory retention, verbal fluency, and dementia severity (Johnson, 2012). These carotenoids act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, which may contribute to their positive impact on cognitive health (Johnson, 2012).

Lutein and zeaxanthin have shown potential in mood disorders and depression. Carotenoids are antioxidants crucial in counterbalancing age-related oxidative stress (Rasmas, 2023). The central nervous system became more vulnerable to free radicals with age, impairing mitochondrial activity and increasing free radical production (Rasmas, 2023). Studies have suggested that dietary carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, may be utilised to support depressive symptoms (Rasmas, 2023). Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to their potential antidepressant properties (Rasmas, 2023).


Find all the relevant papers here.

Alpha Lipoic Acid



  • Metabolic syndrome improvements
  • Glucose metabolism improvements (Capece, 2023)
  • Antioxidant – positive effect on bone mass (Mainini, 2012)


A fatty acid that supports cell energy, acts as an antioxidant, and aids in glucose uptake and fat breakdown. It has shown positive effects on nerve function, diabetic polyneuropathy, and conditions like metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity. ALA's antioxidant activity may also help with weight loss, blood pressure control, dyslipidaemia, and insulin resistance. Combining ALA with inositol may be beneficial for preventing cardiovascular injuries in postmenopausal women.


More of the science...

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), is a fatty acid that plays a leading role in cellular energetic metabolism, exerts antioxidant activities on free radicals, promotes cellular glucose intake, and participates in fat catabolism in the Krebs cycle (Capasso, 2013). In addition to its metabolic functions, ALA has shown positive effects on nerve conduction and diabetic polyneuropathy. It is also indicated for conditions such as metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity (Capece, 2023).


ALA's antioxidant activity has the potential to promote weight loss, blood pressure control, ameliorate atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and improve insulin resistance (Fogacci, 2020). This naturally occurring compound, known as thioctic acid, acts as a potent antioxidant by clearing free radicals, chelating metal ions, and increasing intracellular glutathione levels (Jibril, 2022).


According to studies, combining inositol and alpha lipoic acid may help postmenopausal women who want to prevent cardiovascular injuries (Capasso, 2013). However, the specific amounts of ALA and inositol used are unknown.


Alpha lipoic acid exhibits various potential benefits for menopausal women, including its role in cellular metabolism, positive effects on nerve function and insulin resistance, and antioxidant properties. Further research is needed to explore optimal dosages, long-term effects, and the mechanisms underlying these benefits.


Find all the relevant papers here.

Gingko Biloba



  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory


Derived from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, is a natural remedy with multiple benefits for menopausal women. GB extract is a powerful antioxidant, reducing oxidative stress that can lead to various diseases and premature ageing. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, helping to alleviate inflammation associated with conditions like cardiovascular diseases and cancer. By regulating antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting inflammatory responses, GB extract protects cells, supports the immune system, and promotes overall health.


More of the science...

Ginkgo biloba (GB) extract, derived from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, has gained widespread recognition as a phytotherapeutic product with numerous health benefits. Its unique properties make it particularly valuable for managing various conditions associated with menopause, including oxidative stress and inflammation.


One of the notable characteristics of GB extract is its potent antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress, resulting from an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body, can contribute to the development of various diseases and accelerate the ageing process. GB extract helps counteract this by regulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes, reducing the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and mitigating lipid peroxidation. These actions contribute to protecting cellular structures and promoting overall health (Achete de Souza, 2020).

In addition to its antioxidant properties, GB extract exhibits significant anti-inflammatory effects. It helps modulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, reducing inflammation within the body. Chronic inflammation is associated with numerous health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. By inhibiting inflammatory responses, GB extract supports a balanced immune system and may alleviate symptoms associated with inflammation during menopause (Achete de Souza, 2020).


Oxidative stress is a natural process due to metabolic activities and external factors. However, the excessive and accelerated production of reactive species can lead to cellular damage and disrupt normal bodily functions. Phytotherapeutic products like GB extract offer a potential solution by helping to delay the process of oxidative stress and its associated complications. By providing antioxidant support and combating inflammation, GB extract can contribute to maintaining optimal health and well-being during menopause (Achete de Souza, 2020).



Find all the relevant papers here.

Coenyzyme Q10



  • Antioxidant
  • Energy production
  • Anti-migraine  


A powerful antioxidant essential for cell energy production. During menopause, when hormonal changes and oxidative stress can affect well-being, CoQ10 supplementation may be beneficial. It helps reduce oxidative stress by protecting cells from damage and supports optimal energy metabolism. CoQ10 has shown promise in relieving migraines, protecting the heart, and supporting cognitive health. It is available as a supplement and can be helpful for menopausal women experiencing fatigue, cognitive difficulties, or cardiovascular concerns.


More of the science...

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) functions as an antioxidant and is crucial in energy production within the mitochondria. During menopause, when hormonal fluctuations and oxidative stress can impact overall well-being, CoQ10 supplementation may offer significant benefits.


One of the critical functions of CoQ10 is its potent antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body, can contribute to various health issues. Studies have demonstrated that CoQ10 reduces oxidative stress by neutralising free radicals and protecting cells from damage (Lee, 2012; Wesselink, 2019). This antioxidant effect is particularly relevant during menopause when the body undergoes significant physiological changes as part of the ageing process.


CoQ10 also plays a central role in energy production within the mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells. By facilitating the electron transport chain and ATP synthesis, CoQ10 supports optimal cellular energy metabolism. This energy production function can be beneficial during menopause when fatigue is common (Lee, 2012).


CoQ10 has shown promise in addressing specific menopausal symptoms. Studies suggest its potential as an anti-migraine agent, with evidence indicating that CoQ10 may exert its effects by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (Dahri, 2018). CoQ10 has also been associated with cardioprotective effects, with higher plasma levels of CoQ10 showing a significant correlation with reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Lee, 2012).


Research suggests that CoQ10 may impact cognitive function during a surgically induced menopause. Animal studies indicate that CoQ10 supplementation can ameliorate cognitive deficits by modulating mitochondrial functions and reducing oxidative stress (Sandhir et al., 2014). These findings suggest that CoQ10 may hold promise in supporting cognitive health during menopause.


Find all the relevant papers here.

Green Tea



  • Antioxidant
  • Promotes gut healh
  • Anti-inflammatory


Derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, is an excellent source of beneficial compounds with potential benefits for menopause. Its antioxidant properties, primarily attributed to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), help combat oxidative stress. Green tea extract also exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, promoting a balanced immune system. Furthermore, it shows promise in supporting cognitive function and brain health, potentially enhancing memory and cognitive performance. The interaction between green tea extract and the gut microbiome may contribute to gut health.


More of the science...

Green tea extract, derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, is a treasure trove of beneficial compounds. With its rich content of L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), green tea extract offers a range of potential benefits, including antioxidant properties, hormone regulation, anti-inflammatory effects, cognitive enhancement, and potential support for gut health.

Green tea extract has garnered significant attention in scientific research as a potent antioxidant. The presence of EGCG, in particular, contributes to its antioxidant power (Mancini, 2017). EGCG's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities make it a valuable ally in combating oxidative stress (Scapagnini et al., 2011). Additionally, the bioavailability of EGCG may be higher than previously thought when considering the metabolites produced by colonic microflora, further increasing its potential impact (Del Rio et al., 2010).

The anti-inflammatory properties of green tea extract have also been extensively studied. It may increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 while reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Hinojosa-Nogueria, 2021). By modulating the inflammatory response, green tea extract may contribute to a more balanced immune system during menopause.

Green tea extract has shown promise in supporting cognitive function and brain health. Studies have indicated its potential to improve memory, enhance activation in the prefrontal cortex, and enhance cognitive function, especially in individuals over 55 (Beglinger, 2017). Moreover, green tea extract is associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment (Kuriyama et al., 2006). These cognitive benefits are likely related to the combined influence of caffeine and L-theanine in green tea extract (Beglinger, 2017).

The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in overall health, and green tea extract may influence its composition and function. Green tea extract can stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria while inhibiting the development of harmful ones (Perez-Burillo, 2021). The interaction between green tea compounds and the gut microbiota produces bioactive metabolites, which contribute to the health-promoting effects of green tea extract (Perez-Burillo, 2021).

While more research is needed, green tea extract shows promise in various areas related to menopause, including cancer prevention, cardiometabolic support, obesity management, and glycemic control (Abe & Inoue, 2020; Hinojosa-Nogueria, 2021; Wang, 2021).


Find all the relevant papers here.




  • Cardiovascular health
  • Supporting liver function
  • Support healthy muscles


A vital nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure of cell membranes and supporting cell signalling. It is also a key source of methyl groups in the diet. Choline contributes to neurotransmission, helps transport lipids from the liver, and is involved in methylation. Postmenopausal women, especially those with lower oestrogen levels and a specific genetic variant, are at higher risk of choline deficiency and related issues. Choline has various benefits for women's health, including cardiovascular support, liver function, muscle health, and methylation processes. Insufficient choline intake can lead to metabolic problems, such as fatty liver disease, DNA damage, altered gene expression, and cognitive impairments.


More of the science...

Choline is critical in maintaining cell membranes' structural integrity and signalling functions, serving as a major source of methyl groups in the diet (Fischer, 2010). Choline is obtained from the diet and the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by the enzyme PEMT (phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase), which is induced by oestrogen. It contributes to cholinergic neurotransmission, facilitates lipid transport from the liver, and participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine through its metabolite betaine (Fischer, 2010; Wallace, 2011). A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine is associated with an increased risk of several age-related diseases (Wallace, 2011).


Postmenopausal women with lower oestrogen concentrations are particularly vulnerable to the risk of deficiency and subsequent dysfunction when following a low-choline diet. Furthermore, a common genetic polymorphism in the PEMT gene (rs12325817) can further increase this risk. The dietary requirement for choline is higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women due to their lower oestrogen concentrations, and the presence of the rs12325817 polymorphism further increases this requirement (Fischer, 2010).


Choline's benefits encompass various aspects of women's health, including cardiovascular health, liver function, muscle support, and methylation. Studies have shed light on the severe metabolic implications of choline deficiency, including fatty liver disease, DNA damage, cell apoptosis, altered gene expression, and cognitive impairments (Wallace, 2011). In a study involving the restriction of choline intake, most men and postmenopausal women experienced organ dysfunction, whereas most premenopausal women did not (Fischer, 2007). Liver and muscle dysfunction were common responses to a low-choline diet in both men and women, with fatty liver (hepatosteatosis) occurring due to the limited export of excess triacylglycerol from the liver (Fischer, 2007).


Find all the relevant papers here.




  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Cardioprotective effects


A phytochemical found in tomatoes. Its antioxidant properties help combat oxidative stress and damage. Lycopene supports cardiovascular health by reducing inflammation, regulating lipids, and improving vascular function. Studies show that lycopene-rich diets can reduce cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women and may be useful in metabolic syndrome. Additionally, lycopene shows promise in managing diabetes and potentially reducing cancer risk.


More of the science...

Lycopene, a phytochemical primarily found in tomatoes and tomato-based products, holds great potential for menopause. This non-pro-vitamin A carotenoid contributes to the characteristic red and orange colouration of certain fruits and vegetables, and it cannot be synthesized within the human body, necessitating its inclusion in the daily diet (Imran, 2020).

Of significant interest is lycopene's role as a potent antioxidant, effectively neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibiting superior singlet oxygen removal capabilities compared to other carotenoids like beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol (Imran, 2020). This antioxidant activity is particularly valuable during menopause, marked by increased oxidative stress and cellular damage

One significant benefit of lycopene supplementation during menopause is its potential to support cardiovascular health. Lycopene demonstrates antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-modulating effects and anti-aggregative, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherosclerotic properties (Mozos, 2018). These mechanisms collectively contribute to its cardioprotective effects, which become increasingly relevant as women undergo hormonal changes during menopause.

Furthermore, lycopene has shown promise in improving vascular function and addressing metabolic syndrome components, offering potential benefits for menopausal women (Imran, 2020). Studies have indicated that postmenopausal women consuming lycopene-rich products can significantly reduce their cardiovascular risk within a relatively short period (Sesso et al., 2003, cited in Mozos, 2018). By incorporating lycopene into menopause supplements, it may be possible to support vascular health and minimize the risk of cardiovascular disorders that tend to increase during this life stage.

Lycopene's influence extends beyond cardiovascular health due to its role in diabetes and cancer. Research suggests that lycopene supplementation positively impacts metabolic markers and potentially reduces the risk of major cardiovascular events (Mozos, 2018). Furthermore, investigations into its anticancer properties have yielded promising results (Imran, 2020).

Find all the relevant papers here.




  • Antioxidant
  • Cardiovascular support
  • Improve exercise performance
  • Protective effect on liver and kidney (Chen, 2021)
  • Improving cognitive function(Chen, 2021)


A nutritious vegetable that contains beneficial compounds known as betalains and nitrates. Betalains, such as betanin, act as powerful antioxidants and may reduce the risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and liver and kidney damage. They also exhibit antitumor properties by inhibiting cell growth and promoting cell death. Nitrates in beetroot are associated with improved blood lipids, glucose levels, and blood pressure in chronic diseases. Beetroot juice, rich in nitrates, is often consumed to enhance athletic performance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.


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Beetroot contains vital ingredients that have demonstrated efficacy in support of chronic diseases (including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular), cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory dysfunction. Betalains, such as betanin and nitrates, are among the bioactive phytonutrients found in beetroot (Chen, 2021).


Betalains, particularly betanin, have been identified as potent antioxidants (Chen, 2021). Studies have shown that betalains may mitigate the risk of certain cancers and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and protect against liver and kidney damage (Kavitha et al., 2013 cited in Chen, 2021). The regulatory effect of betalains on peroxidation, achieved through scavenging lipid free radicals and inhibiting peroxidase, nitrite-induced oxidase, and human low-density lipoprotein, further contributes to their antioxidative properties (Allegra et al., 2007; Chen, 2021).


Additionally, betalains have exhibited antitumor activity by impeding cell proliferation and angiogenesis and inducing cell apoptosis and autophagy. Whereas nitrates have been associated with reducing blood lipids, glucose, and blood pressure in chronic diseases. The specific role of nitrates in managing hypertension and hyperglycaemia is yet to be established. Nevertheless, studies have suggested that beetroot, rich in nitrates, has the potential to enhance athletic performance and alleviate muscle soreness in specific exercise contexts (Chen, 2021). Many individuals consume fresh beetroot juice as a source of nitrate supplementation to positively impact physiological responses and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (Webb et al., 2008; Chen, 2021).


Considering the extensive range of bioactive phytonutrients found in beetroot, including betalains, nitrates, polyphenols, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and vitamin E (Chen, 2021; Apak et al., 2004), it is evident that beetroot offers a rich source of antioxidants. This antioxidant capacity holds promise for supporting menopausal health.


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  • Antioxidant
  • Cardiovascular Support


Derived from grape seeds, holds great potential as a key ingredient in menopause supplements. It is rich in antioxidants, including proanthocyanidins and flavonoids, which help counteract oxidative damage associated with menopause. Grapeseed extract also supports cardiovascular health by positively influencing glucose levels, maintaining optimal cholesterol levels, and improving blood flow. Additionally, it shows promise in protecting against peptic ulcers.


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Grapeseed extract, derived from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds, holds tremendous promise as a key ingredient in menopause supplements. While human studies on grapeseed extract and menopause are limited, emerging research highlights its remarkable antioxidant properties, cardiovascular support, and potential for menopausal symptoms.

Rich in proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, and complex phenols like tannins, grapeseed extract offers a wealth of bioactive compounds (Bharat, 2020). Flavan-3-ols, including catechins, epicatechins, and other phenolic compounds like gallic acid and protocatechuic acid, contribute to grapeseed extract's antioxidant and health-supporting properties (Bharat, 2020).

One of the standout qualities of grapeseed extract is its potent antioxidant activity. Through the scavenging of superoxide radicals, grapeseed extract safeguards against oxidative damage, a common concern during menopause (Bharat, 2020). In laboratory studies, proanthocyanidins in grapeseed extract have demonstrated potent antioxidant capabilities, neutralizing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. These compounds also modulate immune function, inhibit platelet activation, and induce the release of nitric oxide, promoting vasodilation (Bharat, 2020). By harnessing these antioxidant effects, grapeseed extract may help counterbalance the oxidative stress associated with ageing and menopause.

Beyond its antioxidant prowess, grapeseed extract exhibits significant potential in supporting cardiovascular health—an essential aspect of menopause. Some studies suggest that grapeseed extract possesses anti-diabetic properties and positively influences glucose homeostasis. Notably, in female rats, grapeseed extract has shown promise in regulating glucose levels. Moreover, specific oligomeric structures within grapeseed procyanidin extracts are known to activate insulin receptors, enhancing glucose uptake (Bharat, 2020).

Animal studies further indicate that grapeseed proanthocyanidins may impede the progression of atherosclerosis and help maintain optimal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels—promoting a healthy cardiovascular system (Bharat, 2020; Gupta, 2020). Grapeseed extract's anti-platelet properties offer another avenue of cardiovascular support, potentially reducing the risk of blood clots and improving overall blood flow (Bharat, 2020). Additionally, research suggests that grapeseed extract may regulate blood pressure, particularly in individuals with metabolic disorders (Gupta, 2020).

Interestingly, grapeseed extract shows promise in protecting against peptic ulcers (Bharat, 2020). The abundance of proanthocyanidins and other phenolic compounds in grapeseed extract may help alleviate the discomfort associated with peptic ulcers (Bharat, 2020).


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Vitamin A



  • Antioxidant
  • Eye health
  • Boost Gut Health


Found in animal-based foods and fruits/vegetables. It supports vision, skeletal development, immune function, and more. Its antioxidant properties help protect against cell damage, especially in the eyes. Vitamin A also plays a role in skin health, aiding wound healing and maintaining a healthy gut. Recent studies suggest it may contribute to glucose control and even have anti-cancer properties.


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Vitamin A, in the form of retinoids, is a biologically active nutrient known for its essential roles in vision, skeletal development, and maintaining epithelial tissues (Osiecki, 2010). It is crucial in various physiological functions, including vision, gene expression, reproduction, embryonic development, growth, and immune function. The primary sources of vitamin A are retinol from animal-based foods and pro-vitamin A carotenoids from fruits and vegetables (Pham, 2021).

One of the key properties of vitamin A is its antioxidant activity, which helps protect against oxidative stress. It acts as an electron acceptor and donor, vital in maintaining cellular health (Olson, 1996). Additionally, vitamin A is associated with eye health, particularly in conjunction with lutein and zeaxanthin, where it supports age-related macular degeneration (Moeller et al., 2014).

Vitamin A also plays a significant role in skin health, particularly wound healing. It stimulates epithelial growth, fibroblasts, granulation tissue, angiogenesis, collagen synthesis, epithelialization, and fibroplasia, all crucial processes for proper wound healing (Zinder, 2019). Furthermore, vitamin A is involved in maintaining gut health. It supports mucin production, cell growth, and cell differentiation in the gut, essential for maintaining the normal barrier function of the intestines. Vitamin A status can also impact the gut microbiome through its effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier (Pham, 2021).

Recent research has highlighted the potential role of vitamin A in glucose control. Pancreatic vitamin A levels are critical for retinoid signalling and normal pancreatic control of glucose (Zinder, 2019). Moreover, vitamin A has shown promising anti-cancer properties. Retinoic acid, a vitamin A derivative, has demonstrated the ability to induce alterations in epigenetic modifications, which can affect cell phenotype (Bar El-Dadon et al., 2016). These findings suggest that vitamin A may have implications for cancer prevention and treatment, although further research is needed to understand its potential in this area entirely.


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Vitamin B6



  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Reduce High blood pressure


Also known as pyridoxine, has a wide range of benefits for our health. It is known to reduce anxiety and address brain dysfunction caused by low levels. This vitamin also acts as an antioxidant, protecting our cells from damage. Studies suggest that vitamin B6 may play a role in cardiovascular health by reducing inflammation and lowering blood pressure. It also produces neurotransmitters that regulate mood, appetite, and cognitive function. For menopausal women, vitamin B6 may help alleviate symptoms such as anxiety and hot flashes.


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Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine offers numerous benefits, including reducing anxiety and addressing brain dysfunction associated with low levels. The vitamin has been recognised for its anti-stress properties and has shown potential in other areas, such as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, vitamin B6 is an antioxidant, reducing oxidative stress and promoting overall health (Hellmann, 2010).

Research suggests that vitamin B6 may have implications for cardiovascular health. Mild vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with inflammation-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin B6 levels and inflammatory markers, highlighting a potential link between impaired vitamin B6 status and increased risk of CVD through inflammation. Additionally, vitamin B6 is known to reduce high blood pressure, and supplementation with the vitamin has demonstrated a beneficial role in hypertension management.

Regarding mental health, vitamin B6 is involved in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurotransmitters are critical in regulating mood, appetite, cognitive functions, blood pressure, and neuronal excitability. Low levels of vitamin B6 are generally associated with depression and brain dysfunction, so many regard it as an "anti-stress" agent (Hellmann, 2010). Furthermore, vitamin B6 may potentially reduce anxiety in older women (McCabe et al., 2017).

Studies have also suggested a link between vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Increased daily intake of vitamin B6 through supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in the number of affected patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Vitamin B6 supplementation has also shown promise by effectively lower blood pressure (Hellmann, 2010).

Furthermore, recent research has unveiled the potent antioxidant ability of vitamin B6. Studies conclude it can efficiently quench reactive oxygen species, demonstrating antioxidant properties comparable to carotenes and tocopherols (Hellmann, 2010).

In addition to its general benefits, vitamin B6 offers specific advantages for menopausal women. Vitamin B6 plays a crucial role in synthesising neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which regulate mood and emotional well-being (Hellmann, 2010). By ensuring an adequate intake of vitamin B6, menopausal women may potentially reduce anxiety, alleviate symptoms of depression, and support overall mental health.

Menopausal women also frequently experience hot flushes and night sweats, disrupting sleep and overall comfort. Vitamin B6 may positively impact hormonal balance, potentially helping regulate these symptoms (Unfer et al., 2004). While further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms and dosage requirements, vitamin B6 supplementation may offer relief from menopausal symptoms and contribute to an improved quality of life during this transitional phase.


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Vitamin E



  • Antioxidant
  • Promote gut health
  • Cognitive function


An important antioxidant that helps protect our cells from damage. It has various benefits for our health, although its specific effects during menopause are still being studied. Vitamin E may significantly reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration, a condition that affects the eyes. It also has potential implications for gut health by influencing the balance of beneficial bacteria. Vitamin E has been linked to depression and anxiety, and while more research is needed, it shows promise as a potential intervention. The relationship between vitamin E and cognitive function is complex, and its role in preventing osteoporosis requires further investigation.


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Vitamin E, a fat-soluble dietary antioxidant, plays a crucial role in plasma membrane repair, as highlighted by Pham (2021). Absorption of vitamin E from the intestinal lumen relies on biliary and pancreatic secretions.

One of the primary benefits of vitamin E is its antioxidant properties. Alpha-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, functions as a peroxyl and alkoxyl radical scavenger in lipid environments, thereby inhibiting lipid peroxidation in lipoproteins and membranes, particularly in nervous tissues (Traber, 2008). Generous dietary intake of vitamin E has been associated with a decreased incidence of chronic diseases, reinforcing its importance (Traber, 2008).

While the impact of vitamin E on specific aspects of menopause may be inconclusive, some areas show promise. Regarding eye health, Evans (2017) suggests that vitamin E supplementation may have a modest effect on the chances of developing age-related macular degeneration. Furthermore, studies have revealed a potential association between vitamin E intake and the gut microbiome (Pham, 2021) found that higher vitamin E intake was linked to a decrease in Proteobacteria, a phylum known to contain pathogens and possess pro-inflammatory properties. Additionally, tocopherols, a component of vitamin E, exhibit antimicrobial activity, which may influence the gut microbiome by altering its redox potential (Pham, 2021).

Depression is another area of interest in the context of menopause. Lower serum levels of antioxidants, including vitamin E, have been implicated in depression and anxiety. While the efficacy of vitamin E supplementation in alleviating depression remains inconclusive, it shows promise as an intervention (Lee, 2022).

The relationship between vitamin E and cognitive function is complex. Human observational epidemiological studies indicate a potential inverse correlation between vitamin E levels/intake, cognitive decline, and the risk of developing dementia. It is important to note that various forms of vitamin E may exhibit distinct biological functions (Boccardi, 2016).

Regarding bone health, the evidence for vitamin E's role in osteoporosis prevention is less compelling. While oxidative stress may interfere with bone formation activity and contribute to osteoporosis, the effects of vitamin E on bone remodelling in perimenopausal women have yielded mixed results. Some observational studies have suggested a potential benefit of vitamin E intake, particularly in individuals with low levels of vitamin E. However, intervention studies, especially randomized controlled trials, are needed to establish a causal relationship between serum vitamin E levels, bone mineral density, and hip fracture risk in perimenopausal women (Guralp, 2014).


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Vitamin K



  • Bone health
  • Muscle homeostasis
  • Vascular health


A vital nutrient with several essential roles in our body. One of its primary functions is to support bone health by helping with bone mineralisation and increasing bone strength. Studies have shown that vitamin K supplementation can improve bone density and reduce the risk of fractures, especially in postmenopausal women. Vitamin K is also beneficial for muscle health, as it promotes the growth and function of muscle cells. Additionally, it plays a role in maintaining healthy blood vessels by preventing calcium build-up in arterial walls.


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Vitamin K is a crucial nutrient that plays a significant role in various physiological processes. One of its essential properties is its involvement as a cofactor in the carboxylation of osteocalcin (OC), which can bind with hydroxyapatite, thus promoting bone mineralisation and increasing bone strength (Ma, 2022). The carboxylation process facilitated by vitamin K is essential for the proper functioning of OC in bone health.

One of the key benefits of vitamin K is its positive impact on bone health. Several studies have demonstrated that vitamin K supplementation leads to higher bone mineral density (BMD) and a reduced risk of fractures in postmenopausal women (Ma, 2022). Vitamin K promotes bone mineralisation and reduces bone reabsorption, contributing to overall bone health (Villa, 2016). Moreover, in bone tissue, vitamin K has been shown to increase osteoblastogenesis (the formation of new bone cells) while decreasing osteoclast formation and function (Alonso, 2012).

In addition to its role in bone health, vitamin K is also involved in muscle homeostasis. Research suggests that vitamin K is associated with increased satellite cell proliferation and migration in muscle tissue (Alonso, 2021). Furthermore, it may play a role in muscle energy metabolism, highlighting its importance in maintaining muscle health and function.

Vascular health is another area where vitamin K demonstrates its benefits. Vitamin K reduces arterial calcium deposits and calcification (Villa, 2016). Promoting the carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), such as matrix Gla protein (MGP), helps prevent the undesirable accumulation of calcium in arterial walls. This mechanism contributes to maintaining healthy blood vessels and overall vascular health.


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